|created in: 1955|
by: James Cooke Browne
|influenced by:||none (first of its kind)|
Loglan ([ˈlɒg.læn]; natively [ˈloglan] ‘logical language’) is the earliest recognized example of a logical language, created by James Cooke Brown in 1955. Its subsequent development and promotion was led by The Loglan Institute (TLI).
Loglan Institute v. Logical Language Group
Loglan has six vowels and 17 consonants for native words, according to the analysis found in Loglan I. In addition, there are several marginal phonemes that have orthographic representation. If these, plus syllabic consonants and non-syllabic vowels (i.e. semivowels), are counted, Loglan has a total of seven vowels and 26 consonants. Loglan phonology is notable for its high prevalence of consonant clusters, including many clusters that are cross-linguistically uncommon, as a result of its morphology and word-generation procedure. Loglan has phonemic stress.
/ɛ/ is realized as /eɪ̯/ before vowels. This may be a particular case of glide insertion, which is optional to break up vowel clusters.
Diphthongs and semivowels
Loglan has four falling diphthongs: /aɪ̯/, /aʊ̯/~/ao̯/, /eɪ̯/ and /oɪ̯/. The diphthong /aʊ̯/~/ao̯/ is spelled ⟨ao⟩. When the high vowels, /i/ and /u/, precede any vowel, they become nonsyllabic in standard Loglan, resulting in sequences that may be analyzed as [semivowel]+[vowel] or as rising diphthongs. That is, /ia/, /iɛ/, /ii/, /io/, /iu/, /ua/, /uɛ/, /ui/, /uo/ and /uu/ are realized as [ja] [jɛ], [ji], [jo], [ju], [wa], [wɛ], [wi], [wo] and [wu]. However, disyllabic pronunciations of these sequences are also permitted, with stress going on the first vowel. In names, syllabicity is fully contrastive; hiatus may be indicated in writing with ⟨,⟩.<ref>. Although — names aside — Loglan can be described without semivowels, this article will include them in Loglan's inventory as marginal phonemes, and utilize /j/ and /w/ in transcriptions.
|labial||interdental||dental or alveolar||palatal||velar||glottal|
|plosive||p b||t d||k g||(ʔ)|
|fricative||f v||(θ)||s z||ʃ ʒ||(x)||h|
|nasal||m (m̩)||n (n̩)|