Goals of the Logical Language Modules Project
Build a Library of Logical Language Modular Components and Tools.
These components should aim to:
- A full logical language can be assembled wholly or partly from existing modules.
- Innovators can focus on developing a new module rather than a whole language.
- Enumerate the design space of Logical Languages.
- Provide alternate modules for different design choices.
- Describe modules' strengths, weaknesses, and compatibility.
- Do not apply value judgements or advocate for any particular option.
- Be systematic and well documented.
- A method or a choice without documented justification will be lost.
- Provide software for working with these components.
Modular Language Architecture
- Writing System
- Predicates and Arguments
- Numbers and Counting
- Semantic Foundation
Module Design Space and Features
- Self-segmentation strategies
- Continuation marker
- certain feature or features of a syllable is used to determine if it is a continuation of the previous word
- Relation between Written and Verbal
- Writing System
- Different sets of phonemes which can be used.
- Different rules for how a phonology can be assembled into words.
Provides set of non-core/non-syntactic/non-structural words with defined meanings Not attached to specific phonological forms Different vocabulary module instances could incorporate different philosophies, such as world view for constructing composites - have a word for 'tooth', or use a compound like 'mouth-stone'?
- Vocabulary for Opposites
- One word per dimension, use negation
- Smaller, more atomic vocabulary.
- happy vs unhappy
- Lojban: gleki vs tolgleki
- One word per dimension direction
- happy vs sad
- Lojban: gleki vs badri
- (Note: it may be debatable that happiness and sadness are opposites, for this example, assume they are)
- Vocabulary for Intensities
- Multiple words for different intensities
- happy vs elated vs ecstatic
- Modifier for different intensities
- happy vs very happy vs extremely happy
- (Note: you may need to ignore some connotations for these examples to fit better)
Predicates and their arguments
- Sentence functions
- predicates, together with arguments, form predications; both must be present (at least implicitly)
- present in most logical languages
- predicates only accept variable labels as terms; these, in turn, can be bound by quantifier expressions and restricted with subsequent predicate clauses
- no arguments are exposed; predicates are implicitly connected with quantified variables
man₁ = see₁; see₂ = cat₁
- Ad-hoc predicate composition
- Serial predicates
- the embedding of one predicate's structure inside another
- Compound metaphors
- predicate apposition as modification of one predicate's meaning by the other's
- Lojban has a highly developed appositional tanru grammar
Numbers and counting
- Numerals as a part of speech
- numbers constitute a separate grammatical class
- As quantifiers
- numbers attach to terms and scope over the predicate, signifying how many possible values of the term satisfy the predicate
- Lojban: ci da (lit. ‘three something’) = ‘there exist exactly three things that…’. Lojban has an extensive assortment of number grammar particles which allow to construct more elaborate quantifications: for example, su'o (pa) ‘at least one’ for ∃, ro ‘all’ for ∀, or even things like da'a su'e rau ‘all but at most enough’.